Resnick’s Four Cs

This week I have been re-reading Mitchel Resnick’s “Lifelong Kindergarten” and thinking about the teacher’s role in the classroom or other kind of learning/collaborating space. In the “Peers” section of his book Resnick outlines four Cs that he envisions for classroom teachers and Computer Clubhouse mentors:

Catalyst: By asking good questions the teacher can provide the “spark that accelerates learning.” The teacher/mentor provides the conditions and resources for learners to follow their own curiosity.

Consultant: This is the oft-cited “guide on the side” model in which the teacher does not lead the learning through didactic teaching techniques but rather provides expertise and feedback as needed while learners experiment and explore.

Connector: No teacher/mentor has all of the knowledge and experience for all possible learning experiences (at least in truly open-ended experiences). Locating specialized mentors for learners, whether inside or outside the physical learning space, is a crucial role for teachers and mentors.

Collaborator: Excellent teachers and mentors follow their own passions and model this to their learners. Inviting learners to work together on a task, a problem, or even an entire project demonstrates the openness that we want all of our learners to develop.

More great ideas from “Lifelong Kindergarten” can be found in Resnick’s book itself and you can read more about the book and author as well as reader reviews in Good Reads at

Scratch 3.0 is here…በአማርኛ!

On January 2nd Scratch 3.0 was released by MIT Media Lab’s Lifelong Kindergarten Program. This newest version of Scratch comes with some amazing new features:

  • an update to the user interface which includes a single, scrollable code menu,
  • the addition of Google Translate and text to speech, and
  • micro:bit support to the Extensions code.

I made a small remix to celebrate Scratch 3.0…and also the release of Scratch in Amharic translation!

Over two years ago in Addis Ababa I worked with a great teacher named Leulseged Assefa to organize a group of student volunteers to begin the work of translating from English to Amharic. The progress was slow but steady and was chronicled on the ECIS TID blog (At the Intersection of Language, Culture, and Code) and also in the April issue of The International Educator (ICS Addis and MIT Translate Scratch Into Amharic).

I am grateful to these great students for their work and proud that Scratch is now even more accessible to young people in Ethiopia and around the globe.

Scratch and Friends


Scratch, the drag-and-drop visual programming language from MIT, continues to grow in popularity among teachers and students. The statistics tracker on the Scratch website shows:

  • 18,688,109 projects shared,
  • 15,314,275 users registered,
  • 97,400,962 comments posted,
  • 3,069,067 studios created

Students are creating, sharing, and remixing Scratch projects…and universities are remixing Scratch itself, building and sharing new flavors of Scratch to further expand the appeal and application of Scratch for programming.

Scratch | Massachusetts Institute of Technology

If you are looking for the original Scratch (now in v.2) this is the place for you. Create an account and begin coding games, simulations, musical instruments, and more!

Snap | University of California, Berkeley

Snap is for more advanced users who want to add their own blocks to Scratch. Built on Scratch v.1.4, Snap projects are also exportable as stand-alone apps for Windows and Mac.


Scribble | Monash University

Artists will appreciate this customization of Scratch (via Snap) that comes pre-loaded with cool red blocks for shapes, transparency and text.


No matter your students’ interests or experience levels, there is a Scratch flavor that is just right for them. Try them out and let me know what you think in the comments below!

Critique: Scratch

scratchScratch is a colorful, visually-appealing programming tool for children and teenagers. It was developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten group at the MIT Media Lab, “with financial support from the National Science Foundation, Microsoft, Intel Foundation, Nokia, and MIT Media Lab research consortia.” With this impressive pedigree, it is impressive that Scratch is also free software. Scratch is built on Squeak, a free, open-source tool which uses SmallTalk.

Scratch is currently in version 1.3.1 with updated versions released roughly semi-annually. The software can be downloaded from the Scratch website at MIT. The download screen presents you with an optional form for some personal information but a link to the Scratch privacy policy states: “You do not have to tell us anything about yourselves to download the Scratch software. When you download the Scratch software, we give you the option of telling us some things about yourself, but you do not have to fill in any of this information if you don’t want to.” Every item on the form is optional, so you could choose to disclose your country but not your city or school.

Students can use Scratch to make simple (or complex) interactive programs like games, cartoons, simulations, and much more. I have used Scratch in my work with 8th graders for three years now and it never fails to capture their interest and creativity. Scratch programs are saved in a .sb format which is small and easily emailed or up/downloaded. These cannot be opened by other software, but that doesn’t seem to be a problem thanks to the Scratch website. With a simple click on the Share button, your Scratch programs are uploaded to the Scratch website and turned into Java applets which can be played right there on the page or embedded into other webpages.

The shared Scratch files also have a kid-friendly Creative Commons license applied to them automatically. Called a License to Play, this agreement attempts to ensure that credit is given for using others’ ideas and also to develop an awareness of sharing in general. In addition to the cc-license, remixing of projects is encouraged and enabled through easy downloads of the original .sb file. Sharing a remix up to the site automatically creates a notation for the project with the name of the original programmer and a link to her/his program. The overall user experience is friendly and open.


Freedom: There is only one version of Scratch and it is free of cost and encumbrance. Scratch is therefore both freely available and freely distributable.

Privacy: Users are not required to disclose any personal information to download and enable the software. Teens and adults are asked to provide an email address in order to create an account on the Scratch website. (The email address is only used for password recovery.) Children are not asked for email addresses and all other information (name, location) is optional.

Openness: Scratch’s underlying source code is freely available and “unofficial” customizations have popped up here and there (most notably a scrolling background extension). The Scratch website is an excellent resources and includes support forums which any member can use. Individual Scratch programs are cc-licensed when they are shared to the Scratch website.

Control: The software is “officially” developed by the MIT folks and although user input is frequently sought and incorporated into updates, the development itself is closed (i.e. you cannot join the development team). The Scratch team develops and shares this software is a highly visible, public manner and encourages individual initiatives provided that the Scratch “branding” remains pure.

Scratch scores very well in the catagories of Freedom and Privacy but could do a bit better in  Openness and Control. It does, however, meet the criteria of all four catagories, earning it a Platinum rating here on